ABSTRACT Tractor mufflers constructed with amalgamation of perforated ducts, baffles or perforated baffles and expansion chambers for acoustic attenuation are commonly used. Poorly designed mufflers provide limited noise reduction and high back pressure, resulting in low fuel efficiency. Sound pressure mapping technique was adopted to identify major contributor of noise for a 47.6 PS tractor. An experiment was carried out to evaluate different muffler designs with regard to sound pressure levels and exhaust back pressure at varying operating conditions. Each muffler design produced noise greater that 90 dBA Leq at operator’s ear level at rated engine speed, and was more than the exposure limit of noise for 8-h work day recommended by ISO and OSHA. Long exposure of this noise might cause occupational disease to operator. Noise reduction was observed in one of the mufflers near rated engine speed with low back pressure with better fuel efficiency. Sound pressure at operator ear level, back pressure and fuel consumption were found within 90.3-92.8 dBA, 1.765-2.157 kPa and 2.65-3.35 l.h-1, respectively, near engine rated speed.
ABSTRACT A six-row oscillating-type garlic harvester was designed and developed for timely harvest of garlic crop. The developed garlic harvester consisted of a digging unit and a soil separating unit. The digging unit consisted of a rectangular shaped digger blade with length, width and thickness of 900 mm, 200 mm and 10 mm, respectively. The soil separation unit had an oscillating rake of 1000 mm length and 900 mm width with 10 mm diameter rods spaced at 50 mm. PTO power was used to operate the soil separator at constant amplitude of 10 mm with 540±10 rpm of a camshaft. The machine performed satisfactorily during field evaluation in sandy loam soil. The highest harvesting percentage was 98.07 % with mean damage of garlic bulb of 4.23 %, maximum soil separation index of 0.20, average power requirement of 5.74 kW and field capacity of 0. 32 ha.h-1 with field efficiency of 80 per cent.
ABSTRACT Low capacities of double roller (DR) gins provides an economic barrier to its widespread application. Feeding mechanism to DR gin plays a significant role in enhancing ginning efficiency. Saw band cylinder-type single-locking feeder was developed with an aim to unlock the cotton bolls and maintain constant feeding rate of individual locules. It comprised of twin regulator, reservoir box, saw band cylinders and feeding apron. It regulated feed rate to about 220-240 kg.h-1. The performance was evaluated in comparison to conventional feeding system. Saw band cylinder speed and cotton moisture content were optimized by using RSM. Quadratic equations for prediction of ginning output and specific energy were generated by using RSM. The ginning output and reduction in bulk density increased by 6.47 % and 22.57 %, respectively, whereas the specific energy decreased by 3.25 per cent. Multiple response analysis showed the optimum levels of moisture content of 7.32 % (w.b.) and saw cylinder speed of 200 rpm with desirability of 0.936 by maximazing output and minimizing specific energy. Cotton quality was found to improve in terms of colour grade due to increase in degree of reflectance and reduction in yellowness.
ABSTRACT The influence of root age and moisture content on compressive strength properties of an improved (TMS 30572) and a local (TME 7) cassava cultivar were investigated. Roots harvested at 12, 15 and 18 months after planting (MAP) were used to determine stress at peak, energy to break and Young’s modulus of the roots at moisture contents of 50 %, 55 %, 60 %, 65 % and 70 % (w.b.). Mean stress at peak, energy to break and Young’s modulus of TMS 30572 ranged from 0.61 – 0.88 N.mm-2, 0.89 – 1.13 N.m and 0.92 – 0.84 N.mm-2; 4.80 – 6.67 N.mm-2, 5.99 – 9.21 N.m and 4.55 – 5.11 N.mm-2; and 4.81 – 9.28 N.mm-2, 5.27 – 5.77 N.m and 5.68 – 8.84 N.mm-2at 12, 15 and 18 MAP, respectively. Corresponding values for TME 7 ranged from 0.41 – 1.06 N.mm-2, 0.95 – 1.15 N.m and 1.07 – 1.30 N.mm-2; 3.23 – 8.18 N.mm-2, 5.70 – 8.37 N.m, 5.56 – 8.04 N.mm-2; and 3.22 – 6.96 N.mm-2, 4.25 – 5.58 N.m and 6.69 – 8.38 N.mm-2, respectively. Second-order polynomials described the behaviours of the roots. Root age, and not moisture content, influenced the strength of TME 7 roots, while none of the parameters studied influenced toughness and stiffness (p>0.05). Neither age nor moisture content significantly affected the toughness and stiffness of the roots of the two varieties.
ABSTRACT Engineering properties of grain and kernel are required to design crop production, material handling and processing equipment. A study was conducted to determine the properties of grain and kernel of Panicum miliaceum at different moisture contents in range of 6.5−26.5 % (d.b.). The length, width, thickness and geometric mean diameter of Panicum miliaceum were observed in the range of 2.22−2.36 mm, 2.08−2.24 mm, 1.93−2.21 mm, 2.07−2.27 mm for grain and 1.87−1.98 mm, 1.73−1.97 mm, 1.63−1.80 mm, 1.74−1.91 mm for kernel, respectively. Sphericity ranged between 0.93−0.97 for the grain, and 0.93−0.96 for the kernel. Surface area, volume and thousand-grain weight increased from 12.73 mm2 to 15.64 mm2, 4.25 mm2 to 5.80 mm3, 5.25 g to 6.70 g for grain; and 8.94 mm3 to 11.14 mm2, 2.50 mm3 to 3.50 mm3, 3.21 g to 4.15 g for kernel, respectively. True density of grain and kernel increased with increase in moisture content. Bulk density decreased from 765.5 kg.m-3 to 697.57 kg.m-3. Similarly, in case of kernel, bulk density decreased from 845.33 kg.m-3 to 724.97 kg.m-3. Terminal velocity of grain and kernel ranged from 1.68 m.s-1 to 2.77 m.s-1 and 0.80 m.s-1 to 1.89 m.s-1, respectively and increasing trend was observed with moisture content. The coefficient of internal friction of grain and kernel increased with increase in moisture content from 0.48 to 0.68 and 0.69 to 0.90, respectively. The geometric, gravimetric, aerodynamic and frictional properties of grain and kernel of Panicum miliaceum at different moisture contents were found to be different at 5 % significance level.
ABSTRACT Soil degradation is a severe environmental problem confronting the world today. A study was undertaken to apply revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) to estimate the soil erosion and effect of land use and land cover on soil erosion in Krishna lower sub-basin using Remote Sensing and GIS. Spatial map of each RUSLE parameters was derived in Arc GIS 10.1 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.3 for the 11317.36 km2 Krishna lower sub-basin catchment in Andhra Pradesh. The values of R, K, LS, C, P factors of the catchment area were used to generate soil erosion spatial maps. The study showed that the average annual soil loss was sensitive to rainfall factor, R, land use and land cover. The computed maximum annual soil erosion for the years 1993 to 2015 was 28.69 t.ha-1. yr-1. Severe erosion was found in settlements, wasteland and during rabi crop. The estimated soil loss from “high” to “very high” occurred in scrubland. Moderate erosion occurred in double/triple cropping area, and slight erosion occurred in forest and during kharif crop.
ABSTRACT The knowledge of wetted width, depth and maximum wetted width beneath the surface of soil is required in design and management of an efficient drip irrigation system, which can largely be controlled by emitter discharge and time of irrigation. Temporal movement of wetting in horizontal and vertical directions under surface point source was studied in acrylic tank at 0.5 l.h-1, 1.0 l.h-1, 2.0 l.h-1 and 4.0 l.h-1 emitter discharges in vertisols. However, a constant volume was applied in each run. Power equation based models were developed using results obtained for temporal changes in parameters of wetting geometry like the horizontal surface wetting width (Bs), maximum wetting depth (d), maximum horizontal wetting width (B) at high value of correlation. The maximum wetted radius at the soil surface as well as beneath the soil surface increased with the increase in emitter discharge rate. The maximum wetting radius at soil surface was found to be 113 mm, 115 mm, 132 mm and 134 mm at discharge rate of 0.5 l.h-1, 1.0 l.h-1, 2.0 l.h-1 and 4.0 l.h-1, respectively. The maximum wetted depth did not increase with increase in emitter discharge rate. It covered distance of 133 mm, 119 mm, 119 mm and 119 mm with emitter discharge rates of 0.5 l.h-1, 1.0 l.h-1, 2.0 l.h-1 and 4.0 l.h-1, respectively.
ABSTRACT A study was conducted to develop a plug- and finger-type onion seedling transplanting mechanisms in a soil bin and examine the effects of age of seedling and machine parameters (speed of operation, height of seedling drop, finger material) on plant spacing, planting depth, successful transplanting, furrow closure, filling efficiency and plant damage. Plant spacing ranged from 121.4 mm to 133.5 mm using plug metering mechanism, while it was 167.9 mm to 195.0 mm with finger-type metering mechanism. The percent seedling transplanted and percent furrow closure with plug mechanism varied from 76.67 % to 100 % and 73.33 % to 100 %, respectively; and in finger-type metering mechanism they ranged from 18.33 % to 78.33 % and 15 % to 73.33 %, respectively. Plug filling efficiency ranged from 96.67 % to 32.22 % with plug mechanism, and 95.28 % to 22.5 % with finger metering mechanism. Percent seedling damage with plug mechanism ranged from 0 % to 17.54 %, and was lower than 0 % to 31.05 % caused by finger-type metering mechanism. The performance of plug-type metering mechanism for onion seedling was closer to the recommended practices as compared to finger-type metering mechanism.
ABSTRACT Poor residue handling capability of no-till drills in combine harvested rice and wheat fields during sowing of wheat in rabi and pulses in kharif is a major barrier for their extensive use. The problem aggravates more due to lesser inter-spacing between furrow openers and their arrangements on only two toolbars. A study was conducted to assess the effect of furrow opener arrangements on residue accumulation on a test setup with three toolbars and seven inverted-T type furrow openers. Six patterns of furrow opener arrangements were evaluated in combine harvested wheat field. Furrow openers in V-type arrangement of 2, 2 and 3 on front, middle and rear toolbar, respectively, (Arrangement-B) was the best in terms of residue entanglement and accumulation of 121 g.m-1 length. No residue accumulation was observed when the setup was operated under chopped residue condition with same arrangement. Residue flow percentage was 100% for this arrangement. The result suggested arranging the furrow openers on three toolbars with wider furrow opener spacing to minimize the residue accumulation while drilling pulse crops under no-till residue condition after wheat harvesting.
ABSTRACT India is the second largest producer of tea in the world. Assam contributes 53 % of total plantation area and 54 % of total production of the country. Large quantity of waste is generated from tea processing which has negligible economic value. Industrial tea waste was collected from a nearby tea industry and converted into briquette after mixing with binding material. Briquette’s characteristics prepared from industrial tea waste (ITW) was found good for gasification. The calorific value of ITW was measured as 18.01 MJ.kg-1. Gasification was carried out at air flow rates of 25.32, 31.65, 34.08, and 42.96 Nm3.h-1 at four inlet settings of the blower. The producer gas composition (CO = 18.7 % and H2 = 15.5 %) was highest at 31.65 Nm3.h-1 air flow rate. Maximum combustible gas discharge was 0.78 Nm3.kg-1 at air flow of 31.65 Nm3.h-1 and feed rate of 14.30 kg.h-1. Measured and estimated calorific value of the producer gas was 4.10 and 4.63 MJ.Nm-3, respectively, with 54.55 % gasification efficiency. It was concluded that ITW has good gasification potential, and may be utilised by the tea industry for partial independence from use of conventional sources of energy.
ABSTRACT Chickpea grains were roasted by traditional sand roasting (180, 200 and 220ºC) and microwave roasting (450 W, 600 W and 900 W) for 5, 10 and 15 min. The effects of roasting method and their parameters on physico-mechanical and roasting characteristics were determined. Roasting led to an increase in size, sphericity, angle of repose, porosity and puffing index of chickpea. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in fracture force and coefficient of friction was observed. True density decreased with roasting and the lowest value of 787.87 kg.m-3 was observed on sand roasting at 180°C for 15 min. The highest value of puffing index (179.87 %) and length/width ratio (155.04 %) was observed for sand roasting at 220ºC for 15 min and 5 min, respectively. The force required for rupture of chickpea reduced with roasting, and the lowest value (32.28 N) was observed during sand roasting at 220ºC for 10 min. The optimum roasting condition identified for sand and microwave roasting to obtain higher puffing index, lower hardness and rupture energy was observed to be 220 ºC for 10 min and 600 W for 15 min, respectively.
ABSTRACT Sweet lime is rich in nutrients, but has high waste index. In the present study, efforts were delineated on development of third generation rice-based snacks integrated with pulse powder and sweet lime pomace through extrusion. Optimization of the extrusion process was done by response surface methodology for achieving the maximum possible expansion ratio, water absorption index, water solubility index, crude fibre, antioxidant capacity, protein content, overall acceptability; and simultaneously minimum bulk density, hardness and in range colour change. The developed snack had excellent nutritional, physical and sensory attributes and depicted a scintillating prospect for commercial development. The optimum values of process parameters, using RSM were: 70 % rice proportion (along with 15 % pulse powder and 15 % sweet lime pomace powder) with 12 % feed moisture content, 300 rpm screw speed and 137°C die temperature. The overall desirability was 0.62 for extruded product when optimized by RSM.
ABSTRACT Selected engineering properties as colour parameters, moisture content, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose and angle of internal friction of different exudate gums obtained from selected tree species were determined. Lightness, redness and yellowness values of exudate gums ranged from 22.66 – 49.58, 2.66 – 7.16 and 5.32 – 18.43, respectively. Moisture content, bulk density, true density, porosity and angle of repose of exudate gums ranged from 9.25 – 20.39 %, 592.5 – 792.78 kg.m-3, 1106.67 – 1430 kg.m-3, 36.75 – 49.81 % and 30.00 – 45.000, respectively. Angle of internal friction ranged from 24.520 to 29.050 for wood, 25.300 to 28.260 for glass, 25.020 to 29.280 for steel, 25.120 to 28.990 for galvanized iron, 25.450 to 27.860 for aluminium, 25.160 to 29.930 for mild steel, 26.450 to 28.580 for plywood, 24.970 to 27.990 for fibre, 24.980 to 27.440 for plastic and 20.980 to 27.970 for white board surfaces, respectively. Values of engineering properties determined under the study can be used as references in design of gum handling and processing machineries.
ABSTRACT The Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) encompass a large alluvial track consisting of multi-tier aquifer system. Due to stride developmental activities and intensification of agriculture with higher irrigation water requirement, shallow groundwater regime is getting depleted causing hydrological drought. Spatio-temporal variation of seasonal drought pattern and drought severity in the IGP region was analysed for the period of 2005-2009, using Standardized water level index (SWI) with topo to raster methods of interpolation in geographic information system (GIS). Analysis of hydrological drought indicated that 40-60 % area in the IGP was affected by mild hydrological drought, whereas 2-7 % of the area was affected by extreme hydrological drought because of excessive and indiscriminate groundwater pumping leading to decline in groundwater level. SWI categories were correlated with the irrigation activity for better irrigation planning. Irrigation planning for the IGP was suggested for different SWI drought categories.
ABSTRACT Morphometric analysis of Pingalgarh watershed in Maharashtra state was carried out using remote sensing and GIS techniques for 1977 and 2016. Detailed drainage map was prepared from LISS-IV high resolution satellite image of 20th November 2016 to assess the present situation and from Geo-referenced toposheet on 1:50,000 scale for the year 1977 to bring out the past condition. These maps were used for morphometric analysis and also for runoff estimation. Low drainage density values indicated that the area was underlain by moderately impermeable sub-surface material. Circularity and elongation ratio showed that the watershed had elongated shape. Due to change in land use, the total stream length in the watershed had reduced. The low to moderate value of basin relief indicated gravity of water flow, moderate infiltration and runoff condition of the study area. The length of overland flow indicating the long flow path with moderate ground slope, reflecting the areas associated with moderate runoff and infiltration. Low values of relief are the characteristic features of less resistant rocks of the area. Due to change in land use and cropping pattern over a period of time, the time of concentration was reduced in the later stage resulting in increase in peak runoff rate.
Tillage practices influence the soil physical parameters, which consequently affect the yield of a crop and provide solution against environmental hazards. A study was undertaken to comprehend the effects of broad bed former-cum-seeder on crop parameters, grain and biomass yield, cost-economics and energetics of operation. Simultaneous operation of tractor operated rotary-assisted broad bed former-cum-seeder, developed at ICAR-Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, was compared with sequential operation of conventional seed drill on broad beds and rotary tilling on flatbed in black cotton soil for wheat cultivation. Though higher germination of seeds (183 per m2) was observed with simultaneous operation of bed making and seeding by rotary-assisted broad bed former-cum-seeder, but the differences in yield among treatments were insignificant. The input energy requirement in first crop year (17,710 MJ.ha-1) was marginally higher than that in conventional method (17,445 MJ.ha-1). It decreased by 378 MJ.ha-1 compared to conventional system in the second crop year. The lowest average cost of operation (2607 ` ha-1) in simultaneous operation of bed forming and seeding in the first year, followed by maintaining permanent beds in subsequent years led to an additional income of 13,980 ` ha-1 over farmers’ practice. Rotary-assisted broad bed former-cum-seeder thus has the potential to boost the income of the farmers and better energy management.
Rotavator has been increasingly used in agricultural fields. Under abrasive conditions for ground engaging tools, rotavator blades require frequent replacement resulting to increasing machine downtime and maintenance cost. Electric spark coating (ESC) technique was evaluated on two different commercially available blades with tungsten carbide, Stellite-21 and chromium carbide coating materials to improve their life. Coating materials were applied with three different thicknesses on the blades.Wear loss of the second blade with tungsten carbide 4th mode treatment was about 0.80 % per hour less than the other treatments for both blades. Hardness (58.33 HRA) of the second blade with chromium carbide 4th mode treatment was highest among all treatments and blades. The build-up height with chromium carbide 6th mode treatment was 160.8 µm.
Response surface methodology (RSM) using a D-optimal mixture design was employed for optimisation of formulation for production of a maize-soy-apple pomace based extruded snack. Effects of ingredients levels as maize (50–70 %), defatted soy flour (10–30 %) and apple pomace (10–30 %) on the physical properties like bulk density, expansion ratio, colour, water absorption index and water solubility index, sensory and specific mechanical energy of snacks were investigated. Significant regression equations that explained the effects of different percentages of maize, soy and apple pomace on all response variables were determined. The coefficients of determination, R2, of all response variables were higher than 0.90. Adequate precision for developed model of all responses was higher than 9.0, and corresponding CV was less than 1.9 per cent. Based on the given criteria for optimisation, the basic formulation for production of maize-soy-apple pomace extruded snack with desired sensory quality was obtained by incorporating with 70.0 % maize, 14.57 % soy and 15.43 % apple pomace.
Rice-bean (Vignaumbellata) is a non-conventional, under utilized and multipurpose crop of South and South-East Asia. Eleven rice-bean varieties were studied for their colour, bean area, bean volume, sphericity, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, static coefficient of friction, and thermal transitions. Beans of variety JCR-08-10 had dark (L: 20.96±1.00), trifling red (a: 0.42±0.1) and minute blue (b: -0.69 ± 0.13) in colour. The length, width and thickness of all varieties ranged from 6.52 - 8.44 mm, 3.87 - 5.28 mm and 3.14 - 4.35 mm, respectively. The sphericity, bean volume and bean surface area of these varieties were between 63.02 - 69.9 %, 30.94 - 70.92 mm3, and 51.09 - 87.73 mm2, respectively. The thousand-bean mass, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose of rice-bean varieties were 57.64 - 118.72 g, 820 – 877 kg.m-3, 1138.40 – 1388.79 kg.m-3, 26.47 – 40.57 %, 9.57-21.40º, respectively. The varieties JCR-08-8, JCR-08-12, JCR-08- 15 had comparatively higher bulk density than other varieties. The static coefficients of friction for glass, stainless steel and aluminium were 0.29 - 0.37, 0.38 - 0.45, and 0.35 - 0.55, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms revealed that JCR- 08-8, JCR-08-12 and JCR-50 had highest melting temperature ranging between 121.73 oC and 155.45 oC.
Agriculture in India is gradually tending to be less interesting and lucrative profession due to high risks and less reliability. In order to increase net return from agriculture, proper planning and consideration of prevailing constraints is essential. Bhagwanpur distributary command area-based problem, consisting of maximization of net return with available land, water, labour, energy and other affinity constraints was formulated and solved employing modified Simplex method of linear programming. The area allocated under different crops, land productivity and water productivity for various combinations of canal water and ground water use were computed. When more area was allocated under remunerative crops like maize and potato with 100 % tube well water and canal water use by the crops, maximum net return of `2.31× 108 could be obtained. Maximum land productivity for the command area, was 63826 `.ha-1 when 85 % canal water and 100 % ground water were used by the crops in total area of 3426.9 ha; while maximum water productivity of 25.66 `.m-3 was obtained when 100 % canal water and ground water were used. The results may be useful in suggesting farmers on allocation of their agricultural land under profitable interventions to maximize net return, water productivity and land productivity.
A study was attempted to develop a solar regenerative Bentonite - CaCl2 based solid desiccant material, and examine it's moisture sorption performance and regeneration characteristics. The desiccant was developed from 60 % bentonite, 20 % vermiculite, 10 % CaCl2 and 10 % cement. Regeneration studies on the desiccant were carried out for moisture adsorption at 30 °C and 96 % R.H. for 144 h; and moisture desorption at 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, 70 °C and 80 °C for 8 h. Regeneration temperature and time significantly affected the moisture sorption and desorption of the solid desiccant, and their combined impact was meaningful (p ≤ 0.05). Maximum adsorption capacity of the desiccant was 35.12 % (d.b.), and was efficiently regenerated by solar energy.
Some rehydration, textural and sensory characteristics of tofu dried at 45°C, 60°C and 75°C were studied. Rehydration ratio and coefficient of rehydration were found to vary from 1.39 to 1.49, and 0.67 to 0.93, respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness were found to decrease from 5077.34 g to 3939.95 g and (-) 4.47 to (-)39.71g.s, while springiness and chewiness increased from 0.14 to 0.22 and 647.60 to 820.77, respectively, with increase in drying temperature. L values increased with temperature from 48.04 to 53.55. Sensory characteristics of tofu dried at 75°C obtained from a consumer panel showed acceptability of the product.
Greenhouse is a well-established technology for crop cultivation or nursery growing under controlled, or partially controlled, condition. The major hindrance in its widespread adoption is construction cost and environment management. A low-cost detachable roof greenhouse was developed for round-the-year cultivation of tomato/capsicum. The temperature under the greenhouse during winter season (November-February) was 1-3 0C higher than at open field condition due to greenhouse effect. The temperature during summer season (March-June) in the greenhouse was between 5-46 0C, and was lower than the temperature (6-49 0C) under open field condition. During rainy season (July-October), the temperature recorded were 9-38 0C and 12-41 0C, respectively, under greenhouse and open field condition. The light intensity and relative humidity in the greenhouse varied between 0.7-53.2 klux and 14-96 %, respectively.